Table of Contents

About The Big Book of Warfare...and other stuff

Basic Math/Engineering Reference

Shape Calculations (Cylinder Volume Calculator)
Calculating Kinetic Energy
Calculating the Areas of Basic Shapes
Calculating an Object's Force in Newtons
Calculating Tensile Stress
Computing Slant Ranges
Useful Conversion Measures
Calculating Pressure on an Object immersed in a Fluid
Production Cost Curves
Structural Material Information
Miscellaneous Material Information
Industrial Tolerances over History
Corrosion Rates of Metals
Temperature Conversion Formulas
General Guide to Model-Making Scales
Estimating Piston Engine Power Output (Calculator)
Estimating Population Growth

Human Factors

Incandescent Light-bulb Equivalencies (March 2014)
Estimating Total Costs Attached to Manpower (March 2014)
US Military Promotion Rates (July 2016)

Writing Aids

Naming Places in SciFi & Fantasy (March 2014)
Avoiding Infodumping in your Writing (March 2014)
Special Forces Tropes in Science Fiction (March 2014)
Writing Intelligent Military Science Fiction (March 2014)


Computing Power throughout History
Transfer Bitrates
Video Bitrates
The Future of Home Video (essay) (March 2014)
Why are military messages in all capitals?
Digital Elevation Map Rough Sizing
Computer Rough Sizing in Science Fiction

Statistics, General

U.S. Military Manpower 1789 to 1997
U.S. Army Air Force Personnel: Number and Percent of U.S. Army Strength 1912-1945

General Man-Hour Costs of Various Commodities

Aviation Unit Costs
Naval Combatant Costs
Ground Unit Costs
Strategic System Costs

Statistics, World War II

WW2 Aircraft Combat Statistics

RAF Bomber Command / USAAF 8th AF Aircraft Available for Operations (1939-1945)
RAF Bomber Command Tonnage dropped by Aircraft Type (1939-1945)
RAF/USAAF Monthly Bomb Tonnages (1939-1945)

U.S. Draft Statistics

Equipment Orders canceled by the United States during World War II
U.S. Chemical Agent Production - World War II (1940-45)
U.S. Heavy Field Artillery Monthly Acceptances (1940-45)
U.S. Light Field Artillery Monthly Acceptances (1940-45)
U.S. Mortar Monthly Acceptances (1940-45)
U.S. Anti-Tank Gun Monthly Acceptances (1940-45)

U.S Heavy Tank Monthly Acceptances (1940-45)
U.S. Medium Tank Monthly Acceptances (1940-45)
U.S. Light Tank Monthly Acceptances (1940-45)
U.S. Tank Destroyer Monthly Acceptances (1940-45)
U.S. Armored Car Monthly Acceptances (1940-45)

U.S. Navy/U.S. Coast Guard Vessels Sunk/Damaged beyond Repair during WWII – 7 Dec 1941 to 1 Oct 1945

U.S.A.A.F Heavy Bomber Monthly Acceptances (1940-46)
U.S.A.A.F Medium Bomber Monthly Acceptances (1940-45)
U.S.A.A.F Attack Bomber Monthly Acceptances (1940-46)
U.S.A.A.F Fighter Monthly Acceptances (1940-46)
U.S.A.A.F Reconnaissance Monthly Acceptances (1940-46)
U.S.A.A.F Transport Monthly Acceptances (1940-46)
U.S.A.A.F Trainer Monthly Acceptances (1940-45)
U.S.A.A.F Liason Monthly Acceptances (1940-46)

U.S. World War II Aeronautical Engine Overhaul Times (1943-1945)

A-26 Invader Monthly Acceptances By Plant (1942-1946)
B-29 Superfortress Monthly Acceptances By Plant (1942-1945)
F4U Corsair Monthly Acceptances by Manufacturer (1940-45)
TBY Seawolf Monthly Acceptances by Manufacturer (1944-1945)
SBD/A-24 Dauntless Monthly Acceptances by Manufacturer (1940-1944)

German World War II Vengeance Weapon (V-Waffe) Production Statistics
German Division Count by Type (1939-1945) by Ron Klages & John Mulholland
German Division Count by Theater (1939-1945)
German Heavy (Schwere) Panzer Unit Loss Ratios

German World War II Tank Monthly Acceptances

Statistics, Korean War

USAF Losses during the Korean War

Statistics, Vietnam War

U.S. Military Manpower in South Vietnam 1960-1973
USAF Losses in Southeast Asia By Type and Cause (1 February 1962 to 31 October 1973)


Manpower Isn't Everything
Military-Related Quotes of Note
Distances at which Visual/Aural disturbances can be identified at Night

Aviation Design

Aerospace Vehicle Costs
Aerospace Safety Factors
Calculating the Visibility Factor of an Aircraft
Calculating the approximate turn radius of an air vehicle
Computing Dynamic Pressure (Q)
Safe Egress Limitations for Aerospace Vehicles
The Breguet Equation (and using it effectively)
Aircraft Design Iterations - A Humorous Look

Space Encyclopedia(s)

Space Booster / Ballistic Missile Encyclopedia
Note: I’ve included SRBMs, MRBMs, IRBMs and ICBMs in this encyclopedia along with purpose built space boosters, because many ballistic missiles later became space boosters.
Space Engine Encyclopedia (March 2014)
Notes: Contains liquid, solid, nuclear, plasma, etc engines.
Spacecraft Encyclopedia
Notes: Contains manned and unmanned spacecraft.

Space Design and Misc Stuff

Scaling Liquid Rocket Engines Up/Down in Size (Rule-of-Thumb Only!)
Rocket Explosions (TNT Equivalence if a rocket explodes)
Booster Margins of Safety (for non-recoverable boosters circa 1960s)
Human Life Support Needs
Spacecraft Propellants
Space Propulsion Concepts
Stage and Stage Subsystem Scaling
Rocket Equations
Spacecraft Mass Ratios and Delta Vs
Space Manouvers
Computing ISP
Computing Time Dilation
Sublight Speed Reference Chart
Spacecraft External Temperatures
Solar Constant (for our Solar System)
Space Telescopes and Minimum Observable Objects
Direct Trajectory (Brachistochrone) Calculations
Anti-Matter Costs for Space Travel (Still a WIP, so bear with me)
Spacecraft Decompression Times
Computing Orbital Velocities
Orbital Velocity Chart (Solar System)
Radiation Limits for Space Travel
Crew Requirements
The Drake Equation (aka how many people are in the Galaxy besides us)

Radio Design

Radio Bands


Information on Specific Radars
     Cobra Series
     CXAM Series
     SCR (Signal Corps Radio) Series
     AN/ALT Series
     AN/APG Series
     AN/APS Series
     AN/APN Series
     AN/ASG Series
     AN/BPS Series
     AN/CPS Series
     AN/DLQ Series
     AN/FPS Series
     AN/GPN Series
     AN/MPS Series
     AN/SPG Series
     AN/SPQ Series
     AN/SPS Series
     AN/SPY Series
     AN/TPS Series
     AN/TPY Series
     AN/ULQ Series
     AN/WRF Series
     USAF Frequency Diversity Program

Information on Radar Design
     Decibels and Radars
     Radar Bands and Wavelengths
     Computing Radar Horizon
     Computing Radar Characteristics
     RCS of Typical Radar Targets


Information on Specific Sonars
AN/SQS Series Sonars


North American Railroad Curved Track Speed Equation
North American Railroad Track Classes
Railroad Costs


EMD F-Unit Diesels


Biomass Fuel Values and Information


Spacecraft Non-Nuclear Power Sources

Atomic/Nuclear Power

U.S. Army Reactors
U.S. Naval Reactors
U.S. Small Nuclear Power Sources
Nuclear Power Costing (by kWh)
U.S. At-Sea Disposal of Radioactive Wastes (1946-1967)

Atomic, Biological, Chemical Weapons (ABC)

Atomic Weapons in General
U.S. Underwater Nuclear Testing and Derived Effects Data
Nuclear Effects at Sea Calculator

Detailed 1-Kiloton Nuclear Effects Calculations

Detailed Nuclear Effects Calculations for Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Nuclear Effects Calculator
(Mobile Version Here)
Nuclear Yield/Weight Ratios
Calculations relevant to Nuclear Exchanges (SSPK/EMT/PKill/etc)
Worldwide Artillery Fired Atomic Projectiles (AFAPs)
U.S. Atomic Weapons
U.S. Nuclear Weapon Stockpile Levels (1945-2009)
U.S. Nuclear Tests (1945-1992)
U.S. Definitions of Nuclear Incidents
U.S. Personnel Reliability Program (PRP)


U.S.A.A.F. / U.S.A.F. Attack Aircraft, First Series (1928 to 1962)
U.S. Bomber Uniform Weapons Loadouts
North American's Lightweight Mustangs [P-51H (NA-126) / P-51M (NA-124) / P-51L (NA-129)]


Weapon Effectiveness Definitions (March 2014)
Strategic Bombardment Calculator (April 2017)
Historical PHit / PKill Effectiveness Data (March 2014)
Average Engagement Ranges (Land Combat) (March 2014)
Paris Gun Accuracy Estimates (March 2014)
Calculating Artillery Piece Efficiency
Subsurface Weapons
Calculating Depth Charge Lethality
Ballistic Missile Defense (ABM/BMD)
Economics of Anti-Ballistic Missile Defenses
Classes of Ballistic Missiles
Computing Ballistic Coefficients of Re-Entry Vehicles
Number of Systems Required to Cover a Defended Area
Ballistic Missile Rules of Thumb
Computing Delta-vee required for Ballistic Missiles
Soviet Union Anti-Satellite (ASAT) Tests 1968-1982
Internal Ballistics
Ammunition Propellants
Why Small Arms Propellants don't get upgraded often
Computing Gun Recoil/Impulse Forces (Online Calculator)
Computing Gun Breech Pressure
Estimating Gun Propellant Charge Weights
Estimating Muzzle Velocity via Gun Caliber
Estimating Shell Weights from Existing Designs (Calculator)
External Ballistics
Vacuum Trajectories
Correcting for the Coriolis Effect
Terminal Ballistics
Shaped Charge/Hypervelocity Penetration
Computing the Probability of a Kill for a Tank-Based System
STANAG 4569 Protection Levels
NATO Standard Armor Targets
Armor Areal Densities
Armor/Penetrator Materials
Estimating AFV Protection Levels
AFV Weight Distribution by System
Wounding Statistics
French Ballistic Missiles
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics / Russian Federation
Soviet/Russian Tank Guns
Soviet/Russian Anti-Tank Guided Missiles
Soviet/Russian Tank Armor Systems
Soviet/Russian Armored Fighting Vehicle Production Statistics
Soviet/Russian Medium Tanks (T-34/43/44)
Soviet/Russian Heavy Tanks (IS-2/3/4/5/6/7/10/Misc)
Soviet/Russian Missile Tanks (IT-1, etc)
Soviet/Russian Self-Propelled Guns (SU-76, SU-85, etc)
Soviet/Russian Self-Propelled Artillery
Soviet/Russian T-54 Series
Soviet/Russian T-55 Series
Soviet/Russian T-62 Series
Soviet/Russian T-64/T-80 Series
Soviet/Russian T-72/T-90 Series
Soviet/Russian PT Series
Soviet/Russian MT-LB Series
Soviet/Russian BTR Series
Soviet/Russian BMP Series
Soviet/Russian BMD Series
United States
U.S. Navy Guided Missile Launch Systems (GMLS)
U.S. Navy AEGIS Weapons System Versions
U.S. Navy Standard Missile Family
U.S. Navy 4T Missile Family (Terrier, Talos, Tartar, Typhon)
U.S. Surface-To-Air Missiles (Army)
U.S. Anti-Ballistic Missiles
U.S. Penetration Aids
U.S. Navy Basic Point Defense Missile Systems
U.S. Navy Torpedoes
U.S. World War II Nuclear Weapons
U.S. Rifles
U.S. Machine Guns
U.S. Small Arms Sights
U.S. Anti-Tank Guided Missiles
U.S. Ground/Air Launched Rockets
UK/Great Britain
U.K. Ground/Air Launched Rockets
World Wide
World-Wide Ahead Throwing ASW Weapons

Naval Architecture

Calculating Warship Hull Weights

Colors, Markings, and Camouflage


Heer Vehicle Colors (1922-1945)
Luftwaffe Aircraft Colors (World War II)


Japanese Aircraft Colors in World War II

Soviet Union/Russia

Soviet World War II Colors

United Kingdom

Royal Air Force Roundels (1915-1947)
Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm Aircraft Colors, World War II

United States

U.S. Government Colors
U.S. Army Colors for Combat Equipment
U.S. Army Colors for Support Equipment
U.S. Army Aircraft Markings
U.S. Army Rail Car Lettering
U.S. Army Branch Colors
U.S. Army Clothing Colors
U.S. Military Ammunition Markings
U.S. Military Aircraft Gauge Markings
U.S. Military Aircraft Roundels, 1918-Present
U.S. Army Air Force Bomb Group Tail Markings of World War II
U.S. Aircraft Colors, 1911-1939

U.S. Aircraft Colors, 1940-1949
U.S. Air Force Colors for Support Equipment
U.S. Navy Ship Colors, World War II
U.S. Navy Ship Camouflage, World War II
U.S. Naval Ship Piping Colors (1970s)


College Degree Colors
Spacecraft Colors
Convair (General Dynamics) Badge Colors circa 1960

Military Heraldry


Heer Officer Ranks of World War II
Heer Enlisted Ranks of World War II

Waffenfarben (Arm Colors)
Stahlhelm Markings

United States

U.S. Military Awards (Current)

U.S. Army Officer Ranks of World War II
U.S. Army Enlisted Ranks of World War II

U.S. Navy Officer Ranks of World War II

U.S. Public Health Service Ranks of World War II

U.S. Military Doctor Ranks/Locations (Modern Era)

U.S. Army World War II Military Occupational Specialties (By Number)
U.S. Army World War II Military Occupational Specialties (By Job Area)

U.S. Army Shoulder Sleeve Insignia (Commands) WWII and Immediate Post-War Era
U.S. Army Shoulder Sleeve Insignia (Army Groups) WWII and Immediate Post-War Era
U.S. Army Shoulder Sleeve Insignia (Field Armies) WWII and Immediate Post-War Era
U.S. Army Shoulder Sleeve Insignia (Corps) WWII and Immediate Post-War Era
U.S. Army Shoulder Sleeve Insignia (Divisions) WWII and Immediate Post-War Era
U.S. Army Shoulder Sleeve Insignia (Battalions) WWII and Immediate Post-War Era

U.S. Army Air Force Insignia (Air Forces) WWII and Immediate Post-War Era
U.S. Army Air Force Insignia (Squadrons) World War II

U.S. Marine Corps Shoulder Sleeve Insignia, World War II Era

Union Civil War Flags
U.S. Army Campaign Streamers
U.S. Air Force Campaign Streamers
U.S. Navy Campaign Streamers
U.S. Marine Corps Campaign Streamers
U.S. Coast Guard Campaign Streamers

British Commonwealth

Royal Navy Crest Meanings

Canadian Army Shoulder Flashes – World War II Era and Immediate Postwar
South African Army Shoulder Flashes – World War II Era and Immediate Postwar

Sonar Design

Sonar Bands

Military Organization, Orders of Battle, TO&Es, etc.

United States

US Marine Corps Squadrons in World War II
U.S. Navy Carrier Air Group Organization (1939-1945)
U.S. Army Post-World War II Artillery Division (Proposed)

U.S. Army Air Forces Combat Group Organization - 20 Feb 1945
U.S. Army Air Forces Basic Organizational Concepts - World War II
U.S. Air Force Group Organization – 30 June 1951
U.S. Air Force Squadron Organization – 30 June 1953
U.S.A.F. Wing Organization, 1957
U.S.A.F. B-52 Organization at Peak (Jan 1963)
U.S.A.F. Strategic Air Command OOB, 30 June 1969

U.S. Navy Regulus Deterrent Patrols (1959 – 1964)

Soviet Union/Russia

Soviet/Russian Air Force Organization
NATO Definitions of Warsaw Pact Readiness Levels


Imperial Japanese Navy Organization, World War II

Military Force Planning

Calculating Inflation (US Dollars; 1774-2021)
Representative Equipment Lead Times
Equipment Replacement Intervals
Planning Assumptions based on Weapons Effects
Simplified Wargaming via Dupuy's Quantified Judgment Model
Soviet Anti-Tank Belt Calculations
Historical Procurement Assumptions
Ship Scrapping Information
US WWII PTO Timezones, circa April 1945

Military Symbology

United States/North Atlantic Treaty Organization
FM 21-30 Symbology (1941)
APP-6 Symbology
(July 1986 issue)
MIL-STD-2525 Symbology (17 November 2008 issue)
NATO Naval Task Force Designations

Military Terminology

United States
U.S. NORAD Air Defense Terminology
World War II U.S. Joint Army/Navy Phonetic Alphabet
German Warship Terminology
World War II German Phonetic Alphabet
Japanese Warship Terminology
Japanese Planning Terminology

Warship / Small Craft Information

United States of America
U.S. Naval Reactors
U.S Navy Assault Ships
U.S. Landing Craft / Amtrucks / Amtracs
U.S. Navy Logistics Ships
U.S. Navy and MC/MARAD Troop Ships
U.S. Navy and MC/MARAD Cargo Ships
U.S. Navy and MC/MARAD Tankers/Oilers
U.S Navy Submarines
U.S. Navy Wartime and Post-War Fleet Boat Conversions

Warship Lineages

United States of America

U.S. Navy Hull Designations
U.S. Navy Capital Ship Overage List (Pre-WWII Era)
- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -
U.S. Navy Warship Register Version 1.1 (9 July 2012) (562 kb ZIP)
(Zipped .XLS and .XLSX files containing the raw spreadsheet used to generate the HTML pages below)
U.S. Navy Battleship and Battlecruiser Lineages (BB 1 to BB 71; CC 1 to CC 6)
U.S. Navy Cruiser Lineages (CL 1 to CLGN 160 / CB 1 to CB 6 / CLC 1 to CC 2 / CAG 1 to CG 71)
U.S. Aircraft Carrier Lineages (CV 1 to CVN 80 / CVE 1 to CVE 139)
U.S. Navy Destroyer Lineages, Beginnings to WWI (DD 1 to DD 347)
U.S. Navy Destroyer Lineages, World War II, Part One (DD 348 to DD 699)
U.S. Navy Destroyer Lineages, World War II, Part Two (DD 700 to DD 926)
U.S. Navy Destroyer Lineages, Cold War to Modern (DD 927 to DDG 1002 / DDG 1 to DDG 116 / DL 1 to DLGN 41)
U.S. Navy Destroyer Escort Lineages, World War II, Part One (DE 1 to DE 399)
U.S. Navy Destroyer Escort Lineages, World War II, Part Two (DE 400 to DE 799)
U.S. Navy Destroyer Escort Lineages, World War II, Part Three (DE 800 to DE 1005)
U.S. Navy Destroyer Escort Lineages, Cold War to Modern (DE 1006 to DE 1107 / AGDE 1 / DEG 1 to DEG 11 / FFG 1 to FFG 61)
U.S. Navy Submarine Lineages, Beginning to World War II (SS 1 to SS 211)
U.S. Navy Submarine Lineages, World War II (SS 212 to SS 562)
U.S. Navy Submarine Lineages, Cold War / Modern (SS 550 to SSN 802)

Russia/Soviet Union

Soviet/Russian Carrier Lineage
Soviet/Russian Cruiser Lineage


German Battleship and Battlecruiser Lineages
German Cruiser Lineages
German Destroyer Lineages
German Submarine Lineages, Post-War


Imperial Japanese Navy Battleship and Battlecruiser Lineages
Imperial Japanese Navy Aircraft Carrier Lineages
Imperial Japanese Navy Cruiser Lineages
Imperial Japanese Navy Destroyer Lineages, Interwar Period
Imperial Japanese Navy Destroyer Lineages, World War II Period

Designation/Naming Systems

United States of America

U.S. Air Force Requirements
Army/Navy Spoken Nicknames for Designations
US Navy Ship Characteristics Board (SCB) Designations

US Joint Aerospace Designation System (1962-Present)
U.S.A.A.F. World War II Manufacturers' Codes
U.S.A.F. MX Designations
Boeing Designations
Consolidated/Convair Designations
Republic Aviation Designations
Lockheed Designations
Grumman Designations
North American Aviation Designations
North American Rocketdyne Designations (February 2014)
U.S. T Series Prototype Designations
Reading Modern DOD Program Element Codes
U.S. Naval Ship Compartment Designations (Since 1949)

Soviet Union / Russia

Russian General Acronym List
Prefixes and Suffixes in Designations
Russian Designations for Captured Equipment in World War II
Nicknames for Equipment
Design Bureau (OKB) Numbers and Specializations
Unit Terms

People's Republic of China

Industrial Designations
Weapons System Designations


French Acronyms


Imperial Japanese Navy Basic Design Designations