Space Maneuvers

(Updated 26 February 2013)

References:

Apollo 8 through 17 Mission Reports
Saturn V Launch Vehicle Flight Evaluation Report – AS-512 Apollo 17 Mission – MPR-SAT-FE-73-1 (February 1973)
Saturn V Launch Vehicle Flight Evaluation Report – SA-513 Skylab 1 – MPR-SAT-FE-73-4 (August 1973)
Nuclear Flight System Definition Study: Phase III Final Report – Part C: System Engineering Documentation (April 1971)
Pre-Phase A Technical Study for use of Saturn V, INT-21 and other Saturn V Derivatives to determine an Optimum Fourth Stage (Space Tug) Volume I, Book I (February 1971)

1961 Mass Estimates for 1,000 day Round Trip to/from Mars (PNG)

Generalized Propulsion T/W Requirements

Note: T/W ratios are if it was on Earth.

Earth Escape Velocity (from LEO):

0.3 to 0.8

Leaving/Establishing Orbit (Earth):

0.3 to 1.5

Leaving/Establishing Orbit (Moon):

0.06 to 0.5

Leaving/Establishing Orbit (Venus):

0.2 to 1.2

Leaving/Establishing Orbit (Mars):

0.1 to 1.0

Planetary Landing (Hover) (Moon)

0.17

Planetary Landing (Hover) (Venus):

0.87

Planetary Landing (Hover) (Mars):

0.39

Orbital Rendezvous:
(Delta-v requirements increase rapidly as t/w decreases below 0.07)

0.1

References:
Propulsion Requirements for Space Missions, Rocketdyne Report R-3208 (May 1961)

Apollo Mission Averages

Earth Parking Orbit (92 n. mi altitude): 28,700 fps (8,748 m/sec) ← From AS-512 Mission Report Masses
Earth Orbit (238~ n. mi altitude):
30,550 fps (9,312 m/sec) ← From SA-513 Mission Report Masses
Trans-Lunar Injection (TLI): 10,360 fps (3,160 m/sec)
Lunar Orbital Insertion (LOI): 2,940 fps (900 m/sec)
Descent Orbit Insertion (DOI) A: 74 fps (30 m/sec) ← Apollo 11-12 used the LEM descent engine for this task.
Descent Orbit Insertion (DOI) B: 206 fps (70 m/sec) ← Apollo 14-17 used the SPS to save LEM fuel, allowing heavier payloads to land on the Moon.
Powered Descent (PDI): 6,750 fps (2,060 m/sec)
Powered Ascent: 6,060 fps (1,850 m/sec)
Trans-Earth Injection (TEI): 3,270 fps (1,000 m/sec)

Earth/Moon Shuttle Tug Requirements (200 kb PNG)

Earth Orbital Parameters: 260 n.mi orbit at 31.5° inclination.
Lunar Orbital Parameters:
60 n.mi. orbit at 90° inclination.
Earth to Moon Coast Time:
92 hours
Moon to Earth Coast Time:
83 hours
Lunar Orbit Stay Time:
17.5 days
T/W Ratio: 0.13
Trans-Lunar Injection (TLI): 10,040 fps (3,070 m/sec)
Lunar Orbital Insertion (LOI): 2,730 fps (840 m/sec)
Trans-Earth Injection (TEI): 3,190 fps (980 m/sec)
Earth Orbital Insertion (EOI): 10,050 fps (3,070 m/sec)
Mid-Course Corrections: 50 fps (20 m/sec)
Flight Performance Reserve (0.75%): 195 fps (60 m/sec)
Total Delta-V for one Cycle: 26,255 fps (8,010 m/sec)

Earth Orbit Shuttle Tug Requirements (Conventional Return) (200 kb PNG)

Low Earth Orbit Parameters: 100 to 270 n.mi orbit at 28.5° inclination.
Geosynchronous Orbit Parameters: 19,322 n.mi orbit at 0° inclination.
Ascent from LEO to GEO: 14,500 fps (4,420 m/sec)
Descent from GEO to LEO: 14,500 fps (4,420 m/sec)
Total Delta-V for one Cycle: 29,000 fps (8,840 m/sec)

Earth Orbit Shuttle Tug Requirements (Aerobraked Return) (200 kb PNG)

Low Earth Orbit Parameters: 100 to 270 n.mi orbit at 28.5° inclination.
Geosynchronous Orbit Parameters: 19,322 n.mi orbit at 0° inclination.
Ascent from LEO to GEO: 14,500 fps (4,420 m/sec)
Deorbit Burn: 6,240 fps (1,910 m/sec)
Circularization Burn: 380 fps (120 m/sec)
Orbital Transfer (to 100 nm) Burn: 656 fps (200 m/sec)
Total Delta-V for one Cycle: 21,776 fps (6,640 m/sec)

Detailed Saturn V Flight Parameters

NOTE: Stage parameters depend on whether it is a two stage (Skylab) or three stage (Apollo) flight vehicle. Generally, the lower parameters are for three-stage Saturn Vs.

S-IC Stage

Total Delta V: 10,700 to 11,450 fps (3,261 to 3,490 m/sec)
Burn Time: 158 to 162 Seconds
Staging Altitude: 35.9 to 46 nautical miles
Staging Range: 46 to 49 nautical miles
Staging Velocity: 9,012 fps to 9,188 fps
T/W Ratio: 1.15 (Apollo) to 1.19 (Skylab)
Unusable Fuel Percentage: 1.42% to 1.45%

S-II Stage

Total Delta V: 15,300 to 19,100 fps (4,663 to 5,822 m/sec)
Burn Time: 395 to 430 Seconds
Staging Altitude: 93.2 to 238.7 nautical miles
Staging Range: 895 to 972 nautical miles
Staging Velocity: 22,933 to 25,072 fps
T/W Ratio: 0.78 (Apollo) to 0.91 (Skylab)
Unusable Fuel Percentage: 0.42% (Apollo) to 2.56% (Skylab)

S-IVB Stage (Orbital Insertion Burn)

Total Delta V: 2,700 fps (823 m/sec)
Burn Time: 146 Seconds
T/W Ratio: 0.59

S-IVB Stage (Trans-lunar Injection Burn)

Total Delta V: 10,400 fps (3,170 m/sec)
Burn Time: 146 Seconds
T/W Ratio: 0.73