Historical
Probability of Hit (PHit)
and
Probability of Kill (PKill)
Percentages

(5 March 2014)

Editor’s Note: This data has been gathered from sources where they have appeared. Ironically, it seems easier to find this data on Soviet-era weapons, since you could freely talk about the armor protection and firepower of OPFOR equipment that was captured and evaluated in unclassified sources than you could about your own equipment.

Small Arms

5.56mm M-16A1 Assault Rifle

When fired in semi automatic mode, the M-16A1 achieves a 50% PHit on a moving man-sized target at 200~ meters and a stationary target at 250m. Automatic fire reduces these ranges by about 100~ meters or more.

References
Armies of NATO’s Central Front by David C. Isby

7.62mm M60 General Purpose Machine Gun

US Army estimates for a 50% PHit with a six to nine round burst:

Target Type and Mount Type

Max Range for 50% PHit

Moving Target from Bipod

200m

Man Sized Target, Bipod/Tripod

600m

Area target size of infantry fire team, bipod

800m

Area target size of infantry fire team, tripod

1,100m



Statistic

Range (metres)

50

100

250

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

3750

Probability of Hit (Stationary weapon firing at stationary 2.3m2 vehicle target.

NO DATA

83%

NO DATA

47%

31%

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

References
Armies of NATO’s Central Front by David C. Isby

7.62mm SVD Dragunov Sniper Rifle

A Dragunov-armed sniper has the following chances of striking a standing, man-sized target:

Range(m)

50

200

300

500

700

800

1,000

1,600

Chance of hit (%)

95+

95

90

80

60

50

20

5

References
Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army by David Isby

40mm M203 Grenade Launcher

Target Type

Max Range for 50% PHit

Fire Team Sized Target

350m

Vehicle

200m

Window

125m

Bunker Aperture

50m

The standard M433 40mm HEDP grenade can penetrate 50mm of RHA or 50 cm of sandbags, and has a casualty radius of 5m for troops in the open.

References
Armies of NATO’s Central Front by David C. Isby

7.62mm AKMS Assault Rifle

50% PHit on a man-sized target at 300 meters on a target range. Combat experience has shown that the AKMS is deadly up to 100m, its effectiveness falls off rapidly past that. Over 250m, effects are relatively minimal.

Penetration at close ranges against various materials are:

Material

Mild Steel

Concrete

Sand

Earth

Penetration (mm)

25

100

150

229

References
Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army by David Isby

7.62mm PK Series Light Machine Gun

A 6-9-round burst with a PKB (Pintle AAMG mount) has a 50% chance of hitting a stationary, fire-team-sized target at 1,000m under firing range conditions.

A 6-9-round burst with a PKM (Squad LMG) has a 50% chance of hitting a stationary, fire-team-sized target at 800m under firing range conditions, or a stationary standing man at 550 meters.

A PKM's chances of hitting a moving, man-sized target in the open with a 6-9-round burst (range and accuracy approximate to ±10%) are:

Range (m)

50

100

175

250

500

750

1,000

Chance of hit

97%

83%

69%

56%

42%

31%

3%

With a six-nine-round burst a PK Series has the following chances of damaging an unarmoured, stationary vehicle:

Range (m)

100

200

300

500

800

1,000

Chance (%)

95

70

60

45

35

15

If hits are scored, the target will be destroyed approximately 65% of the time.

Penetration at close ranges against various materials are:

Material

Mild Steel

Concrete

Sand

Earth

Penetration (mm)

37

127

178

280

References
Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army by David Isby

12.7mm M2HB Heavy Machine Gun

US Army estimates for a 50% PHit with a nine to fifteen round burst from a stationary vehicle mount

Target Type

Max Range for 50% PHit

Man Sized Target

500m

Vehicle

800m

Fire Team Sized Target

1,000m

If the vehicle was moving, longer bursts of 15 to 30 rounds would be fired and the weapon “walked” onto the target, resulting in the following hit probabilities:

Target Type

Range

PHit Probability

Fire Team Sized Target

300m

50%

Squad Sized Target

500m

30%



Statistic

Range (metres)

50

100

250

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

3750

Probability of Hit (Stationary weapon firing at stationary 2.3m2 vehicle target.

NO DATA

97%

NO DATA

56%

39%

14%

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

References
Armies of NATO’s Central Front by David C. Isby

12.7mm DShKM “Duskha” Heavy Machine Gun

US Army simulator tests indicate that a pintle-mounted DShKM on top of a tank has the following chances of shooting down an AH-1 Cobra helicopter gun-ship, based on a 6-8sec burst at a crossing helicopter exposed for 20 sec:

Range (m)

500

1,000

1,500

Chance of kill (%)

10

10

5

US Army estimates give a DShKM the following chances of scoring a "hit" (which could entail more than one round striking the target) with a 9-15-round burst on a vehicle standing in the open:

Range(m)

100

200

300

500

800

1,000

Chance (%)

95

80

70

50

40

20

65% of the unarmoured vehicles hit will be killed, as will 30% of the armoured vehicles hit, if their armour can be penetrated.

References
Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army by David Isby

Anti-Tank Weapons

RPG-7 Anti Tank Rocket Launcher

Notes: US tests of captured RPG-7s revealed that even well trained gunners are normally 10-15% off in estimating the range, greatly reducing first-round accuracy. Aiming the RPG-7 is even more difficult because the PG-7 projectile is seriously affected by crosswinds in flight. The reaction effect of its rocket motor turns it into the wind, and the RPG-7 gunner must estimate the direction and speed of the wind as well as that of the target.

Hit probability [ of RPG-7]

Type of target

Range (metres)

50

100

200

300

400

500

1st round, exposed, stationary

98%

91 %

52%

27%

10%

5%

1st round, hull-down

80%

70%

20%

9%

3%

2nd round, exposed, stationary

98%

95%

78%

56%

38%

25%

2nd round, exposed, moving

97%

90%

55%

27%

16%

6%

2nd round, hull-down

80%

68%

35%

18%

10%

The target is an M60A1 tank moving at 16km/h at an angle of 30° from the RPG-7, wind at 11km/h.

A PG-7 projectile can punch a 5cm hole through the equivalent of 280mm of armour, pushing hot metal fragments and the jet streaming from the shaped charge into the target, followed by the copper slug produced from the projectile liner, which will ricochet inside a tank and often go through APCs. Armour penetration varies with range and individual grenades. Some have penetrated over 300mm of armour. At under 300m range, however, the PG-7's speed reduces the penetration of its shaped charge.

Range (m)

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

Penetration (mm)

265

220

225

240

265

280

280

280

285

290

If a PG-7 hits an M60A1 it has a 40% chance of knocking it out, but only a 5% chance of completely destroying it.

Although it does not have an anti-personnel round, the RPG-7 is effective against buildings and fortifications. It can penetrate 23cm of sandbags, 45.7cm of reinforced concrete, and 152.4cm of earth and log bunker. The PG-7 can plough through brick and concrete walls, leaving a five-centimetre hole, but it will not knock them down.

References
Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army by David Isby

AT-1 SNAPPER

Range (metres)

300

500

1,000

1,500

2,000

2,500

3,000

0%

54%

73%

82%

87%

89%

0%

Represents the approximate probability of a hit against a stationary M60A1 tank from a stationary ATGM launcher (ATGMs cannot be fired on the move). If a AT-1 scores a hit on a M60A1, it has a 67% chance of knocking it out.

References
Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army by David Isby

AT-2 SWATTER

Range (metres)

300

500

1,000

1,500

2,000

2,500

3,000

0%

0%

90%

90%

90%

90%

90%

Represents the approximate probability of a hit against a stationary M60A1 tank from a stationary ATGM launcher (ATGMs cannot be fired on the move). Figures are estimates. If a AT-2 scores a hit on a M60A1, it has a 67% chance of knocking it out.

References
Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army by David Isby

AT-3 SAGGER

Range (metres)

300

500

1,000

1,500

2,000

2,500

3,000

25%

60%

87%

87%

87%

87%

87%

Represents the approximate probability of a hit against a stationary M60A1 tank from a stationary ATGM launcher (ATGMs cannot be fired on the move). If a AT-3 scores a hit on a M60A1, it has a 69% chance of knocking it out.

References
Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army by David Isby

TOW

Statistic

Range (metres)

50

100

250

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

3750

Probability of Hit (Stationary weapon firing at stationary 2.3m2 vehicle target.
(Estimate 1)

nil

67%

No Data

78%

78%

78%

78%

78%

75%

75%

No Data

Probability of Hit (Stationary weapon firing at stationary 2.3m2 vehicle target.
(Estimate 2)

nil

67%

75%

90%

90%

90%

90%

90%

90%

90%

90%

Armor Penetration (mm)

500 mm, any range

PKill against T-62 MBT

90%

Notes: The two estimates are based on differing allowances for crew performance degradation in combat. Minimum range of TOW is 65m.

References
Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army by David Isby
Armies of NATO’s Central Front by David Isby

DRAGON

Statistic

Range (metres)

50

100

250

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

3750

Probability of Hit (Stationary weapon firing at stationary 2.3m2 vehicle target.
(Estimate 1)

nil

72%

No Data

90%

90%

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

Probability of Hit (Stationary weapon firing at stationary 2.3m2 vehicle target.
(Estimate 2)

nil

nil

nil

72%

72%

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

Armor Penetration (mm)

500 mm, any range

PKill against T-62 MBT

80%

Notes: The two estimates are based on differing allowances for crew performance degradation in combat. Also, the second estimate of Dragon accuracy increases the minimum range from 75m to 300m.

References
Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army by David Isby
Armies of NATO’s Central Front by David Isby

106mm Recoilless Rifle

HEAT Round(s)

Statistic

Range (metres)

50

100

250

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

3750

Probability of Hit (Stationary weapon firing at stationary 2.3m2 vehicle target.

No Data

83%

No Data

67%

47%

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

Armor Penetration (mm)












PKill against T-62 MBT

64%


HEPT ( High-explosive plastic tracer) Round(s)

Statistic

Range (metres)

50

100

250

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

3750

Probability of Hit (Stationary weapon firing at stationary 2.3m2 vehicle target.

No Data

83%

No Data

64%

44%

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

Armor Penetration (mm)


Note: Minimum range is 12 meters.

References
Armies of NATO’s Central Front by David Isby

90mm Recoilless Rifle

HEAT Round(s)

Statistic

Range (metres)

50

100

250

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

3750

Probability of Hit (Stationary weapon firing at stationary 2.3m2 vehicle target.

No Data

83%

No Data

14%

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

Armor Penetration (mm)












PKill against T-62 MBT

50%

Note: Minimum range is 12 meters.

References
Armies of NATO’s Central Front by David Isby

M72A2 LAW

HEAT Round(s)

Statistic

Range (metres)

50

100

250

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

3750

Probability of Hit (Stationary weapon firing at stationary 2.3m2 vehicle target.

97%

94%

17%

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

Armor Penetration (mm)

325 mm, any range

PKill against T-62 MBT

33%

Note: Minimum range is 15 meters.

References
Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army by David Isby
Armies of NATO’s Central Front by David Isby

105mm M102 Howitzer (HEAT Round)

Statistic

Range (metres)

50

100

250

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

3750

Probability of Hit (Stationary weapon firing at stationary 2.3m2 vehicle target.

No Data

94%

No Data

50%

3%

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

Armor Penetration (mm)


References
Armies of NATO’s Central Front by David Isby

155mm M114 Howitzer (HE Round)

Statistic

Range (metres)

50

100

250

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

3750

Probability of Hit (Stationary weapon firing at stationary 2.3m2 vehicle target.

No Data

94%

No Data

56%

8%

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

Armor Penetration (mm)


References
Armies of NATO’s Central Front by David Isby

165mm CEV Demolition Gun

Statistic

Range (metres)

50

100

250

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

3750

Probability of Hit (Stationary weapon firing at stationary 2.3m2 vehicle target.

No Data

94%

No Data

61%

14%

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

Armor Penetration (mm)


References
Armies of NATO’s Central Front by David Isby

Anti-Aircraft Weapons

SAM Performance

HAWK: 75~ fired in Yom Kippur war for 22 to 25 aircraft destroyed. (0.313 PKill)

References
Armies of NATO’s Central Front by David C. Isby

ZSU-23-4 Shilka

Although the weapon was designed for use against high-performance jet aircraft, US Army figures based on tests of captured ZSU-23-4s show that it is also extremely effective against helicopters. The probability of destroying an AH-1 Cobra helicopter gunship with a 40-round burst (10 rounds per barrel) from a stationary ZSU-23-4 is:

Range (m)

500

1,000

1,500

2,000

2500

3000

AH-1 manoeuvring

80%

48%

30%

18%

8%

4%

AH-1 hovering

80%

53%

36%

27%

18%

15%

The US Army estimates that a 5-10 rounds per barrel burst from a ZSU-23-4 would have the following chances of hitting a stationary vehicle:

Range (m)

50

100

175

250

500

750

1,000

1,500

Chance of hit

97%

97%

97%

78%

61%

56%

47%

31%

References
Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army by David Isby

Miscellaneous NATO ADA Weapons

System

PKill (fighter)

PKill (bomber)

Way of firing

Nike-Hercules

53%

42%

Shoot-look-shoot

Improved Hawk

91%

48%

Shoot-shoot-look-shoot

Chapparal

50% (80%)

Shoot-new target-shoot

Vulcan

7%

Four 60-round bursts

Redeye

68%

Shoot-new target-shoot

Stinger

(60%)

Shoot-new target-shoot

Roland II

(70%)

Rapier

(70%)

Crotale

(82%)

Patriot

(80%)

1 Nike figures assume a 20km slant range for the fighter, 70km for the bomber.

2 Hawk and Vulcan figures are for a mission kill rather than a K-Kill.

3 Figures in parentheses are based on a second computer model.

4 All figures are for single-shot kill probability in an environment free of ECM and infra-red countermeasures.

References
Armies of NATO’s Central Front by David C. Isby

Aircraft Armament

Reliability and PKill of Various Aircraft Munitions

Weapon Type

Single Pass PKill
against T-55 MBT

Comparative Reliability

Overall Kill Probability Per Weapon (Computed)

Mk 82
Laser Guided Bomb

26%

85%

0.221

Mk 84
Laser Guided Bomb

33%

85%

0.2805

Maverick

87%

89%

0.7743

Aircraft Guns

No Data

98%

Cannot Compute

Iron Bombs /
Cluster Bomblets

No Data

91%

Cannot Compute

TOW ATGM (Helicopter)

80% (Vietnam)

92%

Cannot Compute

SS-11 ATGM
(Helicopter)

80% (Range)
50% (Battlefield)



References
Armies of NATO’s Central Front by David C. Isby

Ground Vehicle Main Armament and Equipment

Rangefinder Accuracies

Type of Rangefinder

US Army estimates of Rangefinder accuracy on targets at 1,500m

Stereoscopic Rangefinder

±280 meters

Coincidence Rangefinder

±30~ meters

Laser Rangefinder

±5 to 15 meters

References
Armies of NATO’s Central Front by David C. Isby

Tank Lethality Over the Years

Tank Era

Rounds Fired to obtain 50% Probability
of a hit on a standing tank at 1,500m

76mm WWII Tank

13

90mm 1950s/1960s Tank

3

105mm 1970s Tank

1

References
Armies of NATO’s Central Front by David C. Isby

M48 Patton with 90mm Gun

The influence of fire-control systems and optics can be seen in these comparisons of a Belgian M48 tank using different types of rangefinder with its 90mm gun:

Rangefinder Type

Range

500m

1,000m

2,000m

Laser

98%

86%

34%

Stereo Coincidence

97%

70%

14%

Stadia Reticle

98%

34.5%

4%

The figures show the probability of hit by a stationary tank against a stationary 2.3m square target.

References
Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army by David Isby

105mm L7 Main Gun

APDS Round(s)

Statistic

Range (metres)

50

100

250

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

3750

Probability of Hit (Stationary weapon firing at stationary 2.3m2 vehicle target.

97%

97%

94%

94%

86%

61%

44%

25%

8.00%

l + %

nil

Armor Penetration (mm)

300

Not
Avail.

Not
Avail.

Not
Avail.

275

200

225

200

175

Not
Avail.

Not
Avail.

PKill against T-62 MBT

54%


HEAT Round(s)

Statistic

Range (metres)

50

100

250

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

3750

Probability of Hit (Stationary weapon firing at stationary 2.3m2 vehicle target.

97%

94%

92%

89%

69%

50%

28%

17%

3%

nil

nil

Armor Penetration (mm)

425 mm, any range

PKill against T-62 MBT

75%


HEP Round(s)

Statistic

Range (metres)

50

100

250

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

3750

Probability of Hit (Stationary weapon firing at stationary 2.3m2 vehicle target.

97%

94%

92%

89%

56%

47%

28%

17%

3%

nil

nil

PKill against T-62 MBT

81%

References
Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army by David Isby
Armies of NATO’s Central Front by David Isby

73mm Main Gun (BMP-1)

The effectiveness of the Sagger and PKT on the BMP is approximately the same as that of the standard versions. The probability of a hit by a 73mm gun fired from a stationary BMP against a stationary M60A1 in the open, first round on target, according to US Army figures, is:

Range (metres)

50

100

175

250

500

800

1,000

1,300

1,800

Probability

97%

89%

89%

83%

64%

50%

40%

28%

24%(?)

The relatively high accuracy for 1,800m range is unusual, considering that the sight is only calibrated to 1,300m. The shell used against armoured vehicles would be HEAT, capable of penetrating 400mm of armour. If a hit is scored, the US Army estimates that a 73mm HEAT round has a 33% chance of killing an M60A1 and a 50% chance of killing an M113 APC.

References
Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army by David Isby

76mm D-56T (PT-76)

The following table gives the probability of a first-round hit from a standing PT-76 against a standing AFV:

Ammunition

Range (metres)

50

100

175

250

500

750

1,000

1,500

2,000

2,500

HVAP BR-354P

97%

89%

89%

89%

86%

88%

68%

39%

17%

0%

HEAT

97%

83%

83%

83%

83%

75%

61%

33%

3%

0%

These figures are from the US Army, which has had a number of PT-76s for many years.

Penetration against flat, vertical steel armour

Ammunition

Range (metres)

500

1,000

1,500

2,000

APHE

69mm

61mm

54mm

48mm

HVAP BR-354P

92mm

58mm

?

?

The older, spin-stabilised BP-353 or UBP-350M HEAT rounds could penetrate 120mm of oblique, homogeneous armour at any range; the newer fin-stabilised BK-354R can penetrate 280mm.

The HEAT or HVAP round has approximately a 33% chance of killing an M60A1 tank and a 50% chance of killing a lightly armoured vehicle such as an M113 or M109.

At close range the 76mm gun can breach the walls of all but the most impregnable buildings in four (for light buildings) to nine hits.

References
Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army by David Isby

85mm D-44 Divisional / Anti-Tank Gun

Performance (85mm HVAP ammunition)

Round

Type

Weight (Kg)

Muzzle velocity (m/sec)

Armour penetration and velocity (m/sec)

500m

1,000m

1,500m

BR-365P

HVAP

4.99

1,050

139mm (895)

108mm (751)

83mm (623)

BR-367

APC-T

9.20

805

135mm (750)

122mm (697)

109mm (646)

BR-367P

HVAP

5.35

1,020

213mm (909)

1 78mm (803)

148mm (705)

Performance (85mm APHE Ammunition)

Round

Weight (Kg)

Muzzle velocity (m/sec)

Armor penetration

500m

1,000m

1,500m

2,000m

2,500m

BR-365

9.2

792

111 mm

102mm

93mm

85mm

78mm

References
Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army by David Isby

100mm D10 Main Gun

Accuracy

Ammunition

Range (metres)

500

1,000

1,500

2,000

2,500

BR-412 APC-T

90%

50%

33%

8%

4%

BK-5M HEAT

84%

43%

25%

2%

Soviet "textbook" estimates of the 100mm gun's accuracy are much higher. Theoretically, a gun using a BR-412B APHE round against a halted enemy tank 2.7m high and 3.6m long should have a 77% chance of hitting its target at 1,800m range. Actual accuracy would doubtless be much less in combat conditions. Maximum indirect-fire range requires a 28° slope.

Penetration

Ammunition

Range (metres)

500

1,000

1,500

2,000

BR-412 APC-T

155

135

117

100

BM-6 HVAPDS

264

237

BK-5M HEAT

380mm at any range

BR-412B APC-T

171

146

BR-412D APC-T

175

156

References
Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army by David Isby

115mm Main Gun (T-62)

The US Army obtained many T-62s from Israel after the 1973 war and so has been able to test its effectiveness, both theoretically and in the field. According to these tests and studies, the probability of a stationary T-62 hitting an M60A1-size target is:

Ammunition

Shot at target

Range-finder

Target

Range (metres)

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

BR-5 HVAPFSDS

1st

stadia

static

98%

79%

50%

27%

14%

8%

BR-5 HVAPFSDS

2nd

stadia

static

98%

84%

66%

51%

40%

32%

BR-5 HVAPFSDS

1st

laser

static

98%

86%

60%

43%

20%

10%

BR-5 HVAPFSDS

1st

stadia

moving

94%

75%

33%

19%

8%

nil

BK-4M HEAT

1st

stadia

static

89%

69%

33%

11%

3%

3%

BK-4M HEAT

1st

stadia

moving

75%

30%

5%

nil

nil

nil

Moving targets are assumed to be at 24km/h at a 30° angle to the T-62. Second rounds on target assume a first-round hit. If an M60A1 is hit, a BR-5 round has a 71% kill probability and a BK-4M has a 75% kill probability. Figures using a laser rangefinder are unofficial estimates based on Western equipment.

Armour penetration (BR-5 HVAPFSDS, 0° obliquity):

Range (m)

500

1,000

1,500

2,000

2,500

3,000

Armour (mm)

350

300

285

270

245

215

Armour penetration (BK-4M HEAT):

Range (m)

500

1,000

1,500

2,000

2,500

3,000

Armour (mm)

432mm regardless of range.

All figures assume steel armour at 0° incidence.

References
Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army by David Isby

125mm Main Gun (T-64/T-72)

Ammunition

Range (metres)

500

1,000

1,500

2,000

2,500

3,000

HVAPCFSDS

98%

94%

70-80%

50-60%

40+%

35+%

The figures represent the probability of hitting with the first shot on target at a stationary tank, assuming the laser rangefinder and computer to be as effective as those in Western tanks.

References
Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army by David Isby

Non-Line of Sight Artillery

155mm AFAP (0.5 kt Yield)

Effective Damage Radius (Tanks): 120m
Effective Damage Radius (Personnel): 340m

References
Armies of NATO’s Central Front by David C. Isby

NATO Artillery Accuracy

Weapon

Munition

Range (km)

PER piece

PED piece

PER battery

PED battery

81mm mortar

HE

2

25.0

4.0

30.0

18.0

4.2in mortar

HE

4

29.0

3.0

62.0

28.0

M102 105mm

HE

7

15.5

4.0

72.8

29.0

M102 105mm

ICM

7

23.0

4.0

86.0

32.0

M109A1 155mm

HE

10

29.0

4.0

125.0

40.0

M109A1 155mm

ICM

10

33.0

1.0

125.0

40.0

M110 8in

HE

14

41.8

4.0

112.0

50.6

M110 8in

ICM

14

36.0

2.0

141.0

50.0

Lance

ICM

50

88.0

88.0

84.0

84.0

These figures show the projectile error range (PER) and projectile error deflection (PED) in metres for indirect fire by some standard NATO artillery pieces. Figures are given for both individual pieces and full batteries, engaging targets at the range shown.

References
Armies of NATO’s Central Front by David C. Isby

NATO Artillery Lethality

Calibre

HE-PD Lethal Area (ft2)

HE-VT Lethal Area (ft2)

HE-ICM Lethal Area (ft2)

60mm Mortar

1,132

1,627

Not Available in 1980s for this calibre

81mm Mortar

3,307

4,091

Not Available in 1980s for this calibre

107mm Mortar

1,461

7,270

Not Available in 1980s for this calibre

120mm Mortar

4,263

9,854

Not Available in 1980s for this calibre

105mm Howitzer

2,924

5,920

12,080

155mm Howitzer

2,230

4,200

25,800

203mm Howitzer

3,269

4,200

44,865

HE-PD – Point Detonating Fuze for use on troops with overhead cover.
HE-VT – Proximity fuze for troops in open.
HE-ICM – Improved Conventional Munitions.

References
Armies of NATO’s Central Front by David C. Isby

Soviet Artillery PHit in Direct Fire Mode:

All Soviet artillery retains a direct-fire anti-tank capability, and 5% of each Soviet artillery unit of fire is antitank ammunition. But these weapons arc only effective at short range, as shown by these US Army figures assessing the probability of a hit against a stationary vehicle:

Weapon

Ammunition

Range (metres)

50

100

175

250

500

750 +

122mm D-30

BK-6M HEAT

97%

94%

89%

72%

50%

31%

152mm D-20

BR-472 APHE

97%

94%

92%

75%

56%

39%

If a hit is scored, a 122mm HEAT round has approximately a 53 % chance of killing an M60 and a 93 % chance of killing an M113, while a 152mm APHE round, equally approximately, has a 56% and an 83% chance of killing an M60 and M113 respectively.

References
Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army by David Isby