U.S. Navy Torpedoes

References:
The Encyclopedia of World Sea Power by Chris Bishop
Naval Weapons of World War Two by John Campbell
www.navweaps.com by
Tony DiGiulian
Janes' Underwater Warfare Systems

Mark 13 Steam Torpedo (Airborne)

Diameter: 22.4”
Length: 161”
Weight: 2,216 lbs
Warhead: 600 lbs of Torpex
Fuel: 130 lb air, 17 lb alcohol, 48 lb fresh water
SFC: 17.3 lb/hp/hr
Range: 6,300 yards at 33.5 knots
Drop Range (Early WW2): Up to 110 kts at 50 ft.
Drop Range (End of WW2): Up to 410 kts at 2,400 ft.

Mark 14 Steam Torpedo (Submarine)

Diameter: 21”
Length: 246”
Weight: 3,280 lbs
Warhead: 643 lbs of Torpex
Fuel: 256 lb air, 28 lb alcohol, 83 lb fresh water
SFC: 19.5 lb/hp/hr
Range (Fast): 4,500 yards at 46 knots
Range (Slow): 9,000 yards at 31 knots

Mark 15 Steam Torpedo (Surface Ship)

Diameter: 21”
Length: 288”
Weight: 3,841 lbs
Warhead: 825 lbs of Torpex
Range (Fast): 6,000 yards at 45 knots
Range (Medium): 10,000 yards at 33.5 knots
Range (Slow): 15,000 yards at 26.5 knots

Mark 16 Mod 1 “Navol” Torpedo (Submarine)

Diameter: 21”
Length: 246”
Weight: 3,922 lbs
Warhead: 920 lbs of Torpex
Range: 11,000 yards at 46 knots

Mark 16 Mod 3 “Navol” Torpedo (Submarine)

Diameter: 21”
Length: 246”
Weight: 4,000 lbs
Warhead: 943 lbs of Torpex
Powerplant: 350 SHP
Fuel: 390 lbs of Hydrogen Peroxide
Range: 13,700 yards at 46 knots

Mark 17 “Navol” Torpedo (Surface Ship)

Diameter: 21”
Length: 288”
Weight: 4,600 lbs
Warhead: 880 lbs of Torpex
Range: 18,000 yards at 46 knots

Mark 18 Electric Torpedo (Submarine)

Diameter: 21”
Length: 245”
Weight: 3,154 lbs
Warhead: 575 lbs of Torpex
Range: 4,000 yards at 29 knots

Notes: Westinghouse development based off German G7e. Very very noisy.

Mark 24 Passive Homing Torpedo (Airborne)

Diameter: 19”
Length: 84”
Weight: 680 lbs
Warhead: 92 lbs of Torpex
Range: 4,000 yards at 12 knots
Drop Range: Up to 125 kts at 250 ft.

Notes: Designated the Mk 24 Mine as a security measure. Had a 10 minute run time.

Mark 25 Torpedo (Airborne)

Diameter: 22.4”
Length: 161”
Weight: 2,306 lbs
Warhead: 725 lbs of Torpex
Range: 2,500 yards at 40 knots

Notes: Was a replacement for the Mark 13; and was under development in 1945. Canceled due to large amounts of postwar stocks of Mk 13.

Mark 27 Passive Homing Torpedo (Submarine)

Diameter: 19”
Length: 90”
Weight: 720 lbs
Warhead: 95 lbs of Torpex
Range: 5,000 yards at 12 knots

Notes: Based on Mark 24 torpedo for aircraft, with guide rails for use in 21” tubes. In 106 firings during WWII, it scored 33 hits, of which 24 were fatal to the target.

Mark 28 Passive Homing Torpedo (Submarine)

Start of Service: 1945
Diameter: 21”
Length: 246”
Weight: 2,800 lbs
Warhead: 585 lbs of Torpex
Range: 4,000 yards at 19.6 knots

Notes: Based on Mark 18 torpedo, with heavy attention paid to quietness. Was combat tested in 1945; with 5 hits out of 16 fired.

Mark 35 Torpedo (Submarine/Surface Ship)

Quantity Produced: 400~
Start of Production
1949
End of Production:
1952
Start of Service
: 1949

Diameter: 21”
Length: 162”
Weight: 1,770 lbs
Warhead: 270 lbs of Torpex
Range: 15,000 yards at 27 knots

Notes: Could accept settings from fire control system through a 1” diameter cable. Settings that could be adjusted included: run-out course and distance before enable; search ceiling and floor, and whether the torpedo searched in a left or right pattern.

Mark 37 Mod 0 Torpedo (Submarine)

Start of Service: 1957
Diameter: 19”
Length: 138.6”
Weight: 1,430 lbs
Warhead: 330 lbs of Torpex
Fuel: 36 kilowatt battery driving DC Motor
Range (Fast): 10,000 yards at 26 knots
Range (Slow): 23,500 yards at 17 knots
Acquisition Range: 700 yards

Notes: Passive/Active Homing Torpedo.

Mark 37 Mod 1 Torpedo (Submarine)

Start of Service: 1962
Diameter: 19”
Length: 161”
Weight: 1,690 lbs
Warhead: 330 lbs of Torpex
Fuel: 36 kilowatt battery driving DC Motor
Range: 9,500 yards
Acquisition Range: 700 yards

Notes: Passive/Active Homing Torpedo. This mod added wire guidance. Additionally, new search mods were added.

Mark 37 Mod 2 Torpedo (Submarine)

Start of Service:
Diameter: 19”
Length: 161”
Weight: 1,690 lbs
Warhead: 330 lbs of Torpex
Fuel: 36 kilowatt battery driving DC Motor
Range: 9,500 yards
Acquisition Range: 700 yards

Notes: Passive/Active Homing Torpedo.

Mark 37 Mod 3 Torpedo (Submarine)

Start of Service:
Diameter: 19”
Length: 138.6”
Weight: 1,430 lbs
Warhead: 330 lbs of Torpex
Fuel: 36 kilowatt battery driving DC Motor
Range (Fast): 10,000 yards at 26 knots
Range (Slow): 23,500 yards at 17 knots
Acquisition Range: 700 yards

Notes: Passive/Active Homing Torpedo.

Mark 44 Mod 0

Start of Service: 1960
Diameter: 12.75”
Length: 112”
Weight: 425 lbs
Warhead: 75 lbs of Torpex
Fuel: Seawater Battery
Range: 6,000 yards at 30 knots
Acquisition Range: 640 yards
Depth: 984 ft

Mark 44 Mod 1

Diameter: 12.75”
Weight: 433 lbs
Warhead: 73 lbs of Torpex
Fuel: Seawater Battery
Range: 6,000 yards at 30 knots
Acquisition Range: 640 yards
Depth: 984 ft

Mark 46 Mod 0 Torpedo

Start of Service: 1963
Diameter: 12.75”
Length: 102”
Weight: 568 lbs
Warhead: 95 lbs of PBXN-103
Fuel: Thermal Piston Engine driven by Solid Fuel Motor
Depth: 1,500 ft
Range: 11 km at 50 ft @ 40/45 kts
Range: 5.5 km at 1,500 ft @ 40/45 kts

Mark 46 Mod 1 Torpedo

Start of Service: 1967
Quantity Built: 5,945 for USN, 663 for FMS

Diameter: 12.75”
Length: 102”
Weight: 508 lbs
Warhead: 95 lbs of PBXN-103
Fuel: Otto II
Depth: 1,500 ft
Range: 11 km at 50 ft @ 40/45 kts
Range: 5.5 km at 1,500 ft @ 40/45 kts

Notes: Computer was upgraded to enhance performance against slow-moving targets, or those at periscope depth.

Mark 46 Mod 2 Torpedo

Start of Service: 1972
Quantity Built: 3,344 for FMS

Diameter: 12.75”
Length: 102”
Weight: 508 lbs
Warhead: 95 lbs of PBXN-103
Fuel: Otto II
Depth: 1,500 ft
Range: 11 km at 50 ft @ 40/45 kts
Range: 5.5 km at 1,500 ft @ 40/45 kts

Notes: Mod 1 with improved ECCM Logic.

Mk 46 Mod 3 (Not Used)

Mk 46 Mod 4 (Used in CAPTOR Mine)

Mark 46 Mod 5 Torpedo

Start of Service: 1979
Quantity Built: 5,646 for USN, 1,278 for FMS (as of January 1990)

Diameter: 12.75”
Length: 102.36”
Weight: 517.65 lbs
Warhead: 98 lbs of PBXN-103

Mark 46 Mod 6 Torpedo

Quantity Built: 4,922 kits for USN, 311 kits for FMS

Notes: Modernization program for existing torpedoes. Has an improved sonar transducer, a digital guidance system, and engine improvements allowing slower search speeds for greater ranges and less self-generated noise. Produced to counter Soviet “Cluster Guard” anechoic coatings.

Mark 48 Mod 0 Torpedo

Notes: Prototype only. Was powered by a gas-turbine.

Mark 48 Mod 1 Torpedo

Start of Service: 1972
Diameter: 21”
Length: 228”
Weight: 3,434 lbs
Warhead: 650 lbs of PBXN-103
Range: 35,000 yards at 48 knots
Depth: 2,500 feet
Acquisition Range: 4,000 yards

Notes: Gould version. Chosen for production.

Mark 48 Mod 2 Torpedo

Notes: Westinghouse Version. Was not chosen for production.

Mark 48 Mod 3 Torpedo

Notes: Same capabilities as Mod 1, but introduced two-way wire guidance capability; adding track-via-torpedo guidance.

Mark 48 Mod 4 Torpedo

Range: 30,600 yards at 55 knots
Depth: 3,000 ft
Acquisition Range: 4,000 yards

Mark 48 Mod 5 ADCAP Torpedo

Start of Service: 1988
Diameter: 21”
Length: 228”
Weight: 3,695 lbs
Warhead: 650 lbs of PBXN-103
Range: 41,560 yards at 60 knots

Mark 50 “Barracuda” ASW Torpedo

Start of Service: 1981
Diameter: 12.75”
Length: 112”
Weight: 750 lbs
Warhead: 98.3 lb lbs of PBX-103 in Shape Charge configuration
Acquisition Range: 2,700 yards in deep water

Notes: Formerly the Advanced Light Weight Torpedo (ALWT). Was very problematic and expensive due to it's Stored Chemical Energy Propulsion System (SCEPS); which was essentially a melting block of lithium.

Mark 54 “Mako” ASW Torpedo

Start of Service: 2003
Diameter: 12.75”
Length: 106.9”
Weight: 608 lbs
Fuel: 33 liters of Otto II
Warhead: 98.3 lb lbs of PBX-103 in Shape Charge configuration
Acquisition Range: 2,700 yards in deep water

Notes: Formerly the Mk 46 Mod 8, then the Lightweight Hybrid Torpedo (LHT). Combines Mk 50 electronics with Mk 46 propulsion to fix many of the technical and cost problems inherent in the Mark 50.